Vertigo Atau Pusing

Vertigo atau pusing, biasanya hasil dari gangguan dalam sistem vestibular perifer (yaitu, struktur dari telinga bagian dalam). Pusing juga dapat terjadi karena gangguan pada sistem vestibular tengah (yaitu, vestibular saraf, batang otak, dan cerebellum). Dalam beberapa kasus, penyebab vertigo tidak diketahui.

Gangguan vestibular perifer meliputi:
Paroxysmal posisional vertigo (BPPV; perifer paling umum gangguan; dapat disertai dengan pendengaran, penurunan fungsi kognitif dan kelemahan otot wajah)
Cogan's syndrome (peradangan jaringan ikat di kornea; hasil dalam vertigo, dering di telinga [tinnitus], dan kehilangan pendengaran)
Ménière penyakit (fluktuasi tekanan cairan telinga bagian dalam [endolymph]; hasil parah vertigo, dering di telinga [tinnitus], dan progresif pendengaran)
Ototoxicity (yaitu, telinga keracunan)
Vestibular neuritis (peradangan dari sel-sel saraf vestibular; dapat disebabkan oleh infeksi virus).
Paroxysmal posisional vertigo (BPPV) biasanya mempengaruhi salah satu tabung penginderaan di telinga bagian dalam yang disebut kanal berbentuk setengah lingkaran posterior. BPPV terjadi ketika membangun puing-puing yang terdiri dari kalsium karbonat dan protein (disebut otoliths atau telinga kristal) dan bergerak di sekitar di kanal berbentuk setengah lingkaran posterior. BPPV juga dapat mempengaruhi kanal anterior atau kanal horisontal.

Ketika kepala bergerak dengan cara tertentu (misalnya, berputar di tempat tidur, mencari, membungkuk), kristal kalsium bergerak dan memicu sensor telinga bagian dalam, menyebabkan sensasi singkat berputar. Degenerasi telinga bagian dalam (biasanya terjadi pada pasien usia lanjut), trauma kepala, dan infeksi telinga bagian dalam (misalnya, otitis media, labyrinthitis) dapat menyebabkan BPPV.

Beberapa obat dan bahan kimia lingkungan (misalnya, timah, merkuri, timah) dapat menyebabkan ototoxicity (yaitu, telinga keracunan), yang dapat mengakibatkan kerusakan telinga bagian dalam atau 8 kranial saraf (saraf akustik) dan menyebabkan vertigo. Kerusakan dapat bersifat permanen atau sementara.
Penggunaan jangka panjang atau dosis tinggi tertentu antibiotik (misalnya, aminoglycosides [Streptomisin, gentamisin]) dan antineoplastics (misalnya, cisplatin, carboplatin) dapat menyebabkan ototoxicity permanen.

Obat yang dapat menyebabkan ototoxicity  meliputi:

Antikonvulsan (misalnya, fenitoin, carbamazepine)
Antidepresan (misalnya, clomipramine, amoxapine)
Antihypertensives (misalnya, labetalol, enalapril)
Loop diuretik (misalnya, bumetanide, furosemide)
Obat penghilang gejala nyeri (misalnya, aspirin)
Resep dan over-the-counter obat-obatan dingin
Kina (misalnya, klorokuin, quinidine)
Translate http://www.healthcommunities.com/vertigo/causes.shtml

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